Ski well forever . . .

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An invitation from Seth Masia
For the past few years my clientele at the Vail Ski School has consisted very largely of skiers in their 60s and older, along with their kids and grandkids and spouses. Grandparents want to keep up with the younger folks and even teach them a thing or two. I help them do that.
     These over-the-hill jocks (of both genders) are fully committed to the sport and eager to be retrained so they can do it for another ten or twenty years.
      They now face a number of physical challenges: slowed reactions, weaker muscles, fragile joints. To the extent possible I want them to ski smoothly, using ski shape in place of muscle to start turns, guide skis and control speed. A critical issue is to reduce the torque on knees, hips and lower back. This means we’re going to reduce the steering component and replace it very largely with edging. Happily, shaped skis encourage this.
       And we’re going to kill off unweighting, that ungraceful lifting of the entire body weight with each turn, in favor of lateral motions and, later, terrain unweighting.
      The first key exercise is the patience turn. Skiers need to understand that it’s unnecessary (and counterproductive) to muscle the skis into a turn. All that’s needed with a shaped ski is to flatten it on the snow, and the tip will seek the fall line. And all it takes to flatten the ski is a very small upper body motion in the direction of the new turn. Good skiers do this by moving the hands toward the new pole plant. For nervous people, this move toward the valley may produce anxiety, so I ask for a simple turn signal: point the downhill hand in the direction you’re going to turn, as you would in signalling for a turn while riding a bike. This works like a charm, and this gesture will be the pole plant tomorrow. Point the hand and simply wait for the skis to begin turning. As you pass through the fall line, tip the skis a bit further onto the inside edges to complete the turn.
     You can see where this is going. The idea of simple lateral motions to flatten and edge the ski takes both the steering torque and the unweighting body-lift out of the equation, and saves a huge amount of muscle energy. It feels so easy and so natural, and because we’re not jerking the skis about, the turn quickly becomes a smooth continuous arc. There’s no need to pause or recover before floating into the next turn, or the next. It’s easy to link these turns.
     Next step is rhythmic turns in various tempi to learn about turn shape, with a funnel exercise to demonstrate full precise control. All of this can be done without breathing hard, even at 11,000 feet elevation.
     The technique is valid for people of any age after rehabbing from an injury, or when resuming skiing after a long absence from the sport.
     If you’d like to work with me this winter, let’s set up an appointment. Call the Vail Village Private Lesson Desk and ask for me. Here’s the number: (800) 475-4543
Photo by Tom Lippert: Seth skiing powder at Squaw Valley.
All contents of this website are Copyright 2011-2014 by Seth Masia. All rights reserved. No reproduction without prior permission.

Boots, and time to wax the skis

Jimmy Lillstrom stopped by over the weekend, in the course of his daily loop on the bicycle. Jim is a veteran ski industry marketing guy, a relic of the days when Head’s factory ruled North Boulder. He’s still a lean, mean cycling machine, carrying about 1% body fat.

But he doesn’t ski much anymore. A cycling crash years ago put a hairline crack in his femur, and in fixing it the surgeon took 3cm off the leg length. Since then he hasn’t felt comfortable in his normal boot size — everything seems to cant to one side. When he does ski, he uses an oversize boot and sacrifices control.

This is something that can be fixed. There’s a lot that can be fixed by a smart bootfitter. What can’t be fixed is skiing with good control and finesse in an oversized boot. Half the problems I see on the hill are due to skiers slopping around in boots just one size too big. A boot that’s too big is, by definition, too stiff. You won’t know it, because you can feel the ankle flexing inside the shell, but the shell itself doesn’t flex much and there’s a long delay before your muscular input is translated into pressure on the ski.

A big boot isn’t even warm. You wind up compensating for the slop by overtightening the instep buckle. That squashes the veins on the top of the foot, cutting off the return of blood from the foot to the heart and lungs. Blood pools in the toes and cools. The toes then freeze.

The solution is to get into the smallest shell that will take the length of your foot, and then do the work necessary, on the inner boot and inside the shell, to make it comfortable. If the shell fits properly, you can ski with the buckles pretty loose — on the first notch most of the time. The boots flex comfortably, you get a sensitive feel of what the ski is doing, and instant response to edging and pressure changes.

Getting that snug, comfortable fit starts with the smallest shell, then depends on an accurately shaped footbed (not the flat foam product packaged with the boot) and, possibly, a good aftermarket innerboot.

The innerboot is, in fact, the single most important piece of ski equipment. I can put my innerboot into nearly any boot shell of the right length and ski comfortably. I use the Zipfit innerboot, but there are some other good ones out there.

I told Lillstrom to call Sven Coomer, the Mahatma of ski boot design, and talk over the problem of differential leg length. We’ll get him fixed up and ski together.

Today is Sept. 7. It’s supposed to snow the next four days in Vail. I received an invitation today to ski at Copper with the PSIA Demo Team in October.

Time to wax the skis.

 

The canny tennis pro

Old age and treachery will overcome youth and strength.

My dad was a superb semi-pro tennis player. It’s one of the reasons I became a skier.

The last time I tried to compete with him, he was about 50. I was 23.

I had speed and strength and endurance. He had wicked accuracy.

Dad could put his shots in the far corner from wherever I happened to be. I was forced to respond to each shot with some desperate defensive lob, aiming only roughly at the center of his court in hopes of saving the volley. Run ragged, I collapsed after the second set.

Dad, of course, didn’t have to run. His game was in his fingers and wrist. His expertise was subtle, and required relatively small movements of his forearm to guide the racquet. My game was gross, requiring that I heave 160 pounds of meat around the court.

Here’s the lesson for low-impact skiing: Use subtle moves inside the boot, and lateral gestures of the hands, to adjust the angle of the ski and thus the radius of the turn. Take advantage of terrain shape to guide your trajectory. You could waste a lot of energy lifting and throwing your body around, but why bother? The mountain will beat you after the second set.

How the right ski can help

A couple of years ago, Pete Wagner asked me to contribute some thoughts on the art and science of ski design. You can find the resulting dialog here (best to read the entries in chronological order, beginning at the bottom of the list). The discussion gets pretty technical, so here’s the important simple stuff:

Buying skis has become both easier and tougher than it was 20 years ago. Before 1990, there were about 35 ski factories around the world, and they all made essentially the same product. The design of skis had been more or less frozen for several decades. The classic slalom ski was 205cm for men and 190cm for women, shaped 85-65-75mm. This gave roughly a 40-meter sidecut radius and a bearing surface of about 1300 square centimeters. The classic giant slalom ski was 210cm for men and 200cm for women, shaped 87-68-77mm — roughly 50 meters radius and a bearing surface of 1400 square centimeters. The big differences in skis were not in shape and size, but in flex and materials. Slalom skis were of fiberglass, GS skis of aluminum. Recreational skis were thinner (therefore softer) and made of less-expensive materials. Buying skis required a lot of trial and error to find the flex pattern that worked for your weight, strength, skill and snow conditions.

Today most of that trial-and-error is gone. You can choose a ski based on matching width and turn radius to the kind of snow you like.

For hard snow, get a ski with a narrow waist: 70mm or narrower.

For soft groomers or general western front-of-mountain skiing, get a moderate waist —  70 to 78mm.

For resort powder (with a firm surface underneath) get a mid-fat waist, 75 to 85mm.

For deep snow (with an unpredictable base beneath) get a fat waist, more than 85mm. If you’re big and heavy or carry a heavy pack, go even bigger: 95mm and up.

What remains is length and shape. Most men skiing at resorts can get along very nicely on a 165cm ski, most women on 155cm. If you’re stronger than average, go a bit longer but nowadays it won’t buy you a lot of additional stability. If you’re much lighter than average, go a bit shorter — it will pay off in improved agility.

Shape means sidecut. A deeper sidecut with a shorter radius carves a shorter turn. In general, this helps best on groomers. It won’t help in bumps, where you want the tail to release to avoid hanging up at the end of the turn. A good mid-fat nowadays has a shape close to 115-76-105, which gives a theoretical radius of about 12 meters and a bearing surface of 1350 cm2. Note that the bearing surface — the ski’s ability to “float” on soft snow — is similar to the classic straight slalom ski. So is the ski’s weight. But the agility — the ability to bend easily into a turn — is vastly improved due to a turn radius roughly 25% of the old long, straight ski.

So what shape should you buy? Start with that “generic” 115-76-105mm shape at your length, then blow the waist up wider if you’re going to ski a lot of soft snow, and pull it in narrower if you’re going to ski a lot of hard snow. If you’re an expert who loves to carve, go for a shorter radius. If you want to be able to slide the tail a bit in bumps and tight woods (or if you have to skid a bit when you teach intermediates) opt for a bit narrower tail.

That’s the basics. Next time, I’ll consider the relationship between shape and flex pattern.

–Seth Masia
Vail Ski School